Sigmarsson, O., Óskarsson, N., Þórðarson, Þ., Larsen, and G., Höskuldsson, Á, 2010, Preliminary interpretations of chemical analysis of tephra from Eyjafjallajökull volcano (report on the IES website). The Institute of Earth Sciences at the Nordic Volcanological Center (NVC) reported that the summit eruption from Eyjafjallajökull continued during 21-27 April. Figure 19 shows a cross-sectional model of the shallow crust by Sigmundsson and others (2010) based deformation and seismic analyses of the 2010 event. Explosions from the summit caldera of Eyjafjallajökull. Its unusual and difficult to pronounce name comes from the combination of various words with different meanings. Remarks: Deformation at Eyjafjallajokull is accompanied by an earthquake swarm in June 1994 and can be modeled with a horizontal sill intrusion. And to think, some people say Icelandic is a hard language to learn. Large explosions from the summit crater; ash plumes close airspace in Europe. On 19 April the plume rose only 600-900 m above the volcano's 1.7-km-high summit, yet as it drifted S it ascended to an altitude of 6.1 km. 2689-2701. According to news articles, flights from Iceland's airports resumed.On 27 April NVC reported that the eruption plume was seen during an overflight, and rose to altitudes of 3-3.6 km (10,000-11,800 ft) a.s.l. Sources: Institute of Earth Sciences; BBC News. While they are not part of the same volcanic system, they are within 23 km (14 miles) of each other. Pulsating activity with small discrete explosions every few seconds. The structure was approximately 150 m high and 200 m wide. Recently, several conferences have been held and many publications have been issued relevant to the eruption. Eyafjallajökull volcano (its name meaning Island-Mountain under a glacier) under the small homonymous glacier in southern Iceland erupted spectacularly on 20 March 2010, after having been dormant for almost 200 years. Sigmundsson and others (2010) noted that the 2010 eruptions came after 18 years of intermittent volcanic unrest. The IES reports noted that the Fimmvörðuháls eruption followed weeks of high seismicity and deformation (figure 4). The meltwater discharge at Gígjökull glacier was low, and deformation measurements indicated subsidence. However, according to Pall Einarsson of IES, earthquake swarms and two more sill intrusions took place in 2009 (Einarsson, 2010). First let’s tackle one of the most pressing issues surrounding Eyjafjallajökull volcano: how on earth do we say that name? A local scientist described four or five active craters and a 200-meter-high basalt lava-fall into Hrunagil canyon. Gudmundsson, M. T., Pedersen, R., Vogfjörd, K., Thorbjarnardóttir, B., Jakobsdóttir, S., and Roberts, M.J., 2010a, Eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull Volcano, Iceland, Eos, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union (AGU), v. 91, no. Most of the very small ash particles in volcanic plumes fell as clusters of particles known as aggregates. This was 10-20 times the average discharge rate in the preceeding flank eruption at Fimmvörduháls. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. c) Describe the Lava flow produced by the eruption. The initial lavas erupted at Fimmvörðuháls had silica contents of ~ 48% (table 1). Noise of intense boiling and or degassing came from the craters. The massive magma chamber underneath feeds the volcano and gets its fiery, molten rock from a split in the earth’s crust. The last volcanic event was in 1918, which means Katla is overdue for an eruption. According to news reports airports in parts of multiple European countries including England, Scotland, and Ireland were closed at times during 16-17 May. During March 2010, the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) and the Nordic Volcanological Center of the University of Iceland's Institute of Earth Sciences (IES) reported the first eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in southern Iceland since 1823. Sigmundsson, F., A. Hooper, T. Árnadóttir, R. Pedersen, M. Roberts, N. Oskarsson, A. Auriac, J. Decriem, P. Einarsson, H. Geirsson, M. Hensch, B. G. Ofeigsson, E. Sturkell, H. Sveinbjörnsson & K. L. Feigl, 2010. Conditions on 3 May were similar. It’s west of Mýrdalsjökull, the glacier that covers another fiery mountain in the area, the volcano Katla. It’s a small country half the size of Britain. Remarks: GPS and InSAR data reveal a pre-eruptive stage of inflation due to a complicated time-evolving magma intrusion that produced variable and high rates of deformation, in particular after 4 March. Schumann, U., Weinzierl, B., Reitebuch, O., Schlager, H., Minikin, A., Forster, C., Baumann, R., Sailer, T., Graf, K., Mannstein, H., Voigt, C., Rahm, S., Simmet, R., Scheibe, M., Lichtenstern, M., Stock, P., Rüba, H., Schäuble, D., Tafferner, A., Rautenhaus, M., Gerz, T., Ziereis, H., Krautstrunk, M., Mallaun, C., Gayet, J.-F., Lieke, K., Kandler, K., Ebert, M., Weinbruch, S., Stohl, A., Gasteiger, J., Groß, S., Freudenthaler, V., Wiegner, M., Ansmann, A., Tesche, M., Olafsson, H., and Sturm, K., 2011, Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, v. 11, pp. Wall, R., and Flottau, J., 2010. An update from NVC on 21 April noted that activity had declined in the previous few days by an order of magnitude, though phreatomagmatic explosions were still occurring, sending plumes about 3 km high. Just seeing the word can cause anxiety. The second eruption saw volcanic ash shot many kilometers upwards as it spread in the Earth’s atmosphere. Debris-charged jokulhlaups were seen in the evening. Oskarsson B V, 2009. Meteorological clouds prevented views of the summit craters. Stohl, A., Prata, A.J., Eckhardt, S., Clarisse, L., Durant, A., Henne, S., Kristiansen, N.I., Minikin, A., Schumann, U., Seibert, P., Stebel, K., Thomas, H.E., Thorsteinsson, T., Tørseth, K., and Weinzierl, B., 2011, Determination of time- and height-resolved volcanic ash emissions and their use for quantitative ash dispersion modeling: the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, v. 11, pp. Lava was still limited to the immediate surroundings of the eruptive craters (runouts of less than few hundred meters). Gislason and others (2011) reported on analyses of two sets of fresh, comparatively dry ash samples that fell in Iceland and were collected rapidly on 15 and 27 April, during more and less explosive phases, respectively. Gudmundsson, M.T., Thordarson, T., Hoskuldsson, A., Larsen, G., Jónsdóttir, I., Oddsson, B., Magnusson, E., Hognadottir, T., Sverrisdottir, G., Oskarsson, N., Thorsteinsson, T., Vogfjord, K., Bjornsson, H., Pedersen, G.N., Jakobsdottir, S., Hjaltadottir, S., Roberts, M.J., Gudmundsson, G.B., Zophoniasson, S., and Hoskuldsson, F., 2010b, The Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April-May 2010; course of events, ash generation and ash dispersal, EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union (AGU), V. 91, no. Ash generation continued at a similar level. Interestingly enough, the southern side of the mountain used to be a part of Iceland’s coastline. The enormous mass of ice reaches up to 1,651 meters (5,416 feet) at its summit above the caldera. As compared with the same day of the previous week, flights decreased from about 27% on 15 April 2010 to almost 80% on 17-18 April, returning to 21% by 22 April. Intense steam rose from the craters, with occasional small ashy explosions. Of course, you obviously can’t drive right up to a glacier volcano. Lava continued to flow N, advancing ~ 1 km from the crater. During an initial eruptive phase from 20 March to 12 April 2010, lava flowed from fissures on Eyjafjallajökull's ENE flank. This forces 800 people to evacuate from the area. Such models, which are regularly run by groups such as VAACs, volcano observatories, and their associated agencies, help assess where plumes might go in conditions such as darkness and overcast weather. Pronounced 'lava falls' returned to Hvannárgil valley. The Skerin ridge on Eyjafjallajökull, south Iceland: morphology and magma-ice interaction in an ice-confined silicic fissure eruption. The Nordic Volcanological Center (NVC) at the Institute of Earth Sciences reported that on 9 June rumbling noises were heard at Gígjökull just before a steam cloud rose from the summit crater. Although there had been magma spatter at the vent area by 20 April, no significant lava flow had yet been detected. Expand each entry for additional details. Activity from the second fissure was not preceded by detectable seismicity. Red stars and triangles same as in Fig. Both are north of Skógar. It is the glacier on top that makes the Eyjafjallajökull eruptions so explosive and full of ash. Some tephra dispersed towards the W in the afternoon. 16, p.23-25. On 4 May a flight by the Icelandic Coast Guard showed that the crater continued buildup in the northern-most ice cauldron. What type of volcano is Eyjafjallajokull? Both on top of and from below, meltwater flowed down the N and S slopes. Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. The Eyjafjallajökull is a stratovolcano, the most common type of volcano. Eyjafjallajokull volcano is considered a stratovolcano. Icelandic Museum Nat Hist & Iceland Geodetic Surv, 1:250,000 geol map, 2nd edition. On 11 June white steam was mainly confined to the crater, but occasionally a steam plume rose higher than the rim. Processed satellite image. On 24 March, steam explosions were seen. Sources: Institute of Earth Sciences; Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO); Iceland Review; Iceland Review; Iceland Review. Later in the afternoon reports indicated maximum plume height around 4.6 km with ash clearly visible in the clouds. Latest results from GPS stations showed deflation. Ash plumes rose slightly higher the next day, to an altitude of 5.4 km (17,700 ft) a.s.l. The tallest new cone reached an elevation 1,067 m, ~ 82 m above the previous ground surface. And for non-native speakers of Icelandic, the stakes are even higher. Closure decisions by civil authorities were based on ash dispersal modeling provided by the London Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), which is based in the United Kingdom's Met Office (figure 11). No further lengthening of the fissure was detected. There were electrical storms and earthquakes as the natural occurrence continued to wreak havoc. It’s a second active one close by that’s hidden beneath an icy mass. A previous issue of the Bulletin (BGVN 35:03) contained an alternate model by Paul Einarsson. Reference List: Sturkell et al. Sources: Institute of Earth Sciences; Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO); Iceland Review. 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